VCE Geography

Geography is the study of where geographical features are located and why they are there, and what makes one place different from another, and how and why these differences matter. It looks at the interaction between human activities and natural processes, and develops understanding of the distribution of human and natural phenomena on or near the surface of the Earth from a spatial perspective.


The purpose of this study is to develop in students an ability to see meaning in the arrangement of natural and human phenomena in space; to see and understand the interrelationships between people, places and environments; and to use geographic skills and apply spatial perspectives to describe and interpret patterns on the surface of the Earth and the processes that created them.


This study investigates a diversity of themes, environments and places at different scales (local, regional, national, international and global) and in different contexts, particularly in Australia. It explores the patterns and processes of physical geography and their interaction with aspects of human geography. Geographers use a number of spatial concepts as tools to help them to investigate, interpret and explain these patterns. The spatial concepts provide a unique conceptual structure and framework of ideas for geographic investigations of phenomena.


This study design focuses on the following spatial concepts: location, scale, distance, distribution, region and movement, spatial change over time, spatial association and spatial interaction. These spatial concepts are all interconnected and to some degree overlap.


The study of Geography addresses the following questions: What is there? Where is it? Why is it there? What are the effects of it being there? How is it changing over time? Should it be like this? What will it be like in the future?


Through studying Geography, students develop knowledge and skills that enable them to understand the complex interactions of their world from a spatial perspective. They learn to participate effectively as global citizens in the sustainable use and management of the world's resources.

Course Structure

The study is made up of four units:


Unit 1: Natural environments
Unit 2: Human environments
Unit 3: Regional resources
Unit 4: Global perspectives


Each unit contains between two and four areas of study.


There are no prerequisites for entry to Units 1, 2 and 3. Students must undertake Unit 3 prior to undertaking Unit 4. Units 1 to 4 are designed to a standard equivalent to the final two years of secondary education.